Taal Ke 10 Praan

Taal ke 10 Praan

Taal ke 10 Praan or 10 Salient features of Taal are mentioned In ancient texts. These are given as much importance in context of Taal, as we need air in the human body. Narada composed Granth “Sangeet Makaranda” describes a verse For these 10 praans of Taal

Kalo MargKriyangani Grahojati: Kala Laya: ||

Yati Prastarkashcheti Taalprana Dus Simrita: ||

This verse means Kaal, Marg, Kriya, Ang, Grah, Jati, Kala, Laya, Yati, and Prastar are known as Taal ke 10 Praan or 10 Salient features of Taal. Let us now discuss these topics

  • Kaal
  • Marg
  • Kriya
  • Ang
  • Grah
  • Jati
  • Kala
  • Laya
  • Yati
  • Prastar

Kaal

The time period of this earth from the Adi period to the present is continuous, which we divided as per our convenience in second, Minute, Hour, Day, Week, Month, Year, Era, etc. This passing time has no significance in music, only the time period in which the music is performing or presenting is mentioned as Kaal in Music. Kaal also holds the most important place in the composition of the rhythm. Ancient scholars have assumed that if the 100 leaves of lotus are tied together and pierced it with a needle, then the time taken will be called a moment or Shhand.

World renowned scholar Dr. Arun Kumar Sen Ji in his book “Bhartiya Taalon ka Shastriya Vivechan” and Pt. Vijay Shankar Mishra ji in his book “Tabla Puran” has also discussed this in great detail.

Marg

It literally means – path. Just like someone slows down from its journey beginning to the end, sometimes moderate and sometimes completes fast. In music, when the Taal completes its journey by holding a specific motion from its first beat to the last beat, it is called its Marg. This term is less used in the present times, but it is mentioned in ancient texts as follows: -

1. Dhruv Marg - It is of one beat period. It will show Teen Taal as follows: -

Dha

Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha
+ + + + + + +

+

Dha

Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha
+ + + + + + +

+

2.  Chitra Marg - It is of two beats period. It has clap on the first beat and a wave on second beat. It will show Teen Taal as follows: -

Dha

Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha
+ O + O + O +

O

Dha

Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha
+ O + O + O +

O

3.  Vartik Marg - It is of four beats period. It claps at the first beat and wave at the next three beats. It will show the Teen Taal as follows: -

Dha

Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha
+ O O O + O O

O

Dha

Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha
+ O O O + O O

O

4. Dakshin Marg - It is of eight beats period. It has clap at the first beat and wave at next 7 beats. It will show Teen Taal as follows: -

Dha

Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha
+ O O O O O O

O

Dha

Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha
+ O O O O O O

O

Kriya

Kriya here literally means - action. In music, it is done as a hand-work showing the divisions of Taal cycle by hands at the prefixed locations of the claps and waves. This action is of two types.

1. Sashabd Kriya - This is the action when sound is produced by striking both hands. Its four distinctions are as follows:

a) Dhruva - Middle and thumb tweak together, moving hands in the downwards direction.

b) Shampa - Clapping with right hand to left hand.

c) Taal - Clapping with left hand to right hand.

d) Sannipaat - the action of clapping both hands together.

2. Ni:Shabd Kriya - This is the action in which the emotion of emptiness is displayed by waving the hand in the air. Its four distinctions are as follows -

a) Aawap - Shrink fingers by raising hands in the upward direction.

b) Nishkam - Spreading the fingers by bringing the hand down

c) Vikshep - Spreading the hand to the right.

d) Praveshak - Shrink the hand to the left.

Ang

Just as the divisions in the North Indian Classical Music, South Indian scholars created Ang. There is total 6 angs in South Indian Music - Andrutam, Drutam, Laghu, Guru, Plutam, Kakpad). Names of these Angs, Their signs and beat counts are as follows -

Ang Sign Beat Count
1. Anudrutam U 1
2. Drutam O 2
3. Laghu | 4
4. Guru S 8
5. Palutam 8 12
6. Kakpad + 16

These angs are used only in the South Indian Taal System. They are not much used in the North Indian Music.

Taal Ke 10 Praan

Grah

The place in music from which the Taal eclipses the song or Bandish is called its Grah. The place of eclipsing the Taal of the song may vary, Sometimes the song is initialized with the first beat of the Taal, sometimes from another beat. Thus, there are two main types of grah – Sam grah and Visham grah. Visham Grah also has Two distinctions Ateet grah & Anagat Grah.

Sam Grah - When the starting place of the song is sum or first beat, it is called sam grah.

Starting Beat of Song

1 2 3 4 5 6
Starting beat of Taal Dha Dhin Na Dha Tin

Na

2. Visham Grah - When the starting place of the song is before or after Sum, it is called Visham Grah. It has two distinctions -

a) Ateet Grah - When the song or composition shows its end or sum after the actual Taal Sum, it is called Ateet Grah.

Example – After Half beat from actual Sum after “S” on 1 (Off Beat).

Finishing Beat of Song

S1 2 3 4 5 6
Starting beat of Taal SDha Dhin Na Dha Tin

Na

b) Anagat Grah - When the song or composition shows its end or sum before the actual Taal Sum, it is called Anagat Grah.

Example – Before Half beat from actual Sum on “S”.

Finishing Beat of Song

6S 1 2 3 4 5 6
Starting beat of Taal NaS Dha Dhin Na Dha Tin

Na

Jati

The Taal types or categories in music are considered as Jati. According to ancient theatrical scriptures and Sangeet Ratnakar, there were only two castes of rhythm - Tistra and Chastra. 3, 6,12 beat cycles are mentioned as Tistra Jati Taals and 4, 8,16 beats Taals are mentioned as Chatushra Jati.

Indian music currently has five jatis - Tistra, Chatushra, Khand, Mishra and Sankeerna jati. These belongs to divisions of 3, 4, 5, 7 & 9 respectively. Dadra, Ek Taal, Chartal,Etc represents the Trisat jati; Tilwada, Kaharwa, Teen Taal, etc. represents the Chatushra jati; Jhap Taal, SoolTaal, Etc. represents the Khand Jati; Tilvra, Roopak, etc. represents the Mishra Jati; Mat Taal represents the Sankeerna Jati Taal. Jati has a very important place in South Indian Taal System. According to this Taal System, the jati of the taal can be changed by changing the volume of the laghu, with this sidhanta, his major 7 talas take the form of 35 talas. (Click Here to know more about 35 Taal System)

Kala

It is referred to as Kaal Praman or the time span of a Guru syllable. The same amount of time when doubled or quadrupled is mentioned as Dugun / Dwikala or Chaugun / Chaturkala. In the South Taal System, Kala is mentioned in 3 forms - Ekkala, Dwikala, Chaturkala.

a) Ekkla - As it appears from its name, the lyrics in which each volume has one word each. Like - Dha, Dhi, Na, Ti, Gay, etc.

b) Dwikala - This includes the lyrics, which are two or two words in each volume. Like - tit, dhati, tina, kata, etc.

c) Chatrikshkala - It consists of those words which have four or four words in each volume. Like - Titkit, Gadigena, Dagedhati, etc

Laya

The uniform speed used in music is called Laya. The two pillars of Indian music are Laya and Taal. Nothing is possible in music without Laya. The entire universe is tied in a specific Laya. We have three distinctions of Laya in Indian Classical Music – Vilambit Laya, Madhya Laya, Drut Laya. Scholars also mentioned Ati Vilambit Laya or Ati Drut Laya.

a) Vilambit Laya - When the time difference is long to reach from one beat to another, that motion is called Vilambit Laya. It is half than Madhaya laya. This rhythm is used in Khayal, Dhrupad, Dhamar, etc. Vilambit Laya is mentioned as Adanta and Ati Vilambit as Zargo in western Music.

b) Madhya Laya - When the time difference is, not too high not too short, to reach to one beat to another, that motion is called Madhya Laya. Chhota khayal, Sitarakhani Gat bandishs are performed in this tempo. It is mentioned as Moderate tempo in Western Music.

c) Drut Laya - When the tempo is twice as Madhya Laya, it is called Drut Laya. This Tempo is used in Jhala, Dance, Tarana, etc. It is mentioned as Vivo in western music and Presto for Ati-Drut Laya.

Yati

The distinction of motion in music has been considered as Yati. Every composition has its own kind of Laya or tempo. In simple terms, various representations of the motion of tempo are known as Yati. It has five different variations - Samayati, SrotagataYati, Gaupucha Yati, Mradunga Yati, Pipilika Yati.

a) Samayati - When the pace of the Bandish Bolo is uniform, if there is no change in the base speed, then such restriction will be considered as an example of Sama Yati.

b) Srotagata Yati - Just as the flow of water is slow at the beginning of the river and the flow of water increases as the river progresses. Just like this when a bandish is elevating its tempo, it is called Srotagata Yati.

c) Gaupucha Yati - When a bandish is initially starting with the number of phrases and with the progress of composition phrases are decreasing in number, it is called Gaupucha Yati.

d) Mradunga Yati – When the bandish is narrow in the beginning and at the end and becomes flaring in the mid part, It is mentioned as Mradunga Yati.

e) Pipilika Yati / Damru Yati - Its base is based on the size of Damru and Ant. Its format is suggested as small clusters and quick movement in the rhythm as an ant.

Prastar

It has a basic meaning – improvisation. Just as we play peshkar, kayda, Rela, etc. and try to improvise them with different combinations from the main theme. This imaginative presentation is called prastar. In addition, in singing, when the artist explore the raga with alaap, taan, etc to reflect the form and nature of the raga. This also called Prastar. There is a feeling of newness with it.

So, Here is our attempt to discuss this Topic Taal ke 10 Praan. We hope you like our work. Any suggestions are welcome. Please mail us at [email protected]